“Principles of Accessible Design”

New Concepts:

Equivalent Alternative Text- Adding alternative text for images.

  • It is also one of the most difficult to properly implement.
  • Determining appropriate, equivalent, alternative text is often a matter of personal interpretation. 
  • Screen readers cannot analyze an image and determine what the image presents.

Text can be presented in two ways:

  1. Within the alt attribute of the img element.
  2. Within the context or surroundings of the image itself.

When determining appropriate alternative text for images, context is everything.

Captions, Transcripts, and Audio Descriptions

As the average age of the population increases, so does the number of people with hearing impairments.

Captions: text versions of the spoken word presented within multimedia.

Transcripts: Allow anyone that cannot access content from web audio or video to read a text transcript instead.

  • Should contain additional descriptions, explanations, or indications of laughter or an explosion.

Audio descriptions: Primarily for users with visual disabilities.

  • They provide additional information about content that is visible on the screen.

Designing Online Learning Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities

  • Numerous states have witnessed over 100% growth ratesin online education for the last few years (Watson, Murin, Vashaw,Gemin, & Rapp, 2013).
  • Personalized learning or the individualized education program appears to align well with the many features of blended and fully online instruction.
  • A fully online or virtual experience is independent of the brick-and-mortar building and

classroom. Students in this model receive their education fully online.

  • A blended experience is a bit more complicated.
  • The blended, mixed-mode, hybrid experience is where a portion of the instruction is provided in online learning.
  • Where does UDL play in? 

           -Online tool called the UDL Scan Tool that allows districts and everyday users to critically review online content systems for their potential to support learner variability within online environments (see

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