Section A:

After the teaching slice is delivered, it is necessary to reflect on the teaching/learning process.  Your reflection (450 words minimum; 500 words maximum) may answer questions, such as: what aspects of the lesson went well?; which aspects did not go so well?; what do you think the students took away from this lesson?; are there any unanticipated consequences?; how did the students interact with each other and with you?; were the objectives of the lesson achieved?; what did the class and individual students learn today?; where should the lesson begin for the following class?; and, inter alia, are there other ways to teach or re-teach this lesson or some part of it?

Deadline: Sunday, October 28, 2018, 11:59 p.m.

Section B:

Your peer reflection (250 words minimum; 300 words maximum) may answer questions, such as: what did your peer do well?; what needs work? Offer him/her concrete suggestions.  You can do this by formulating them as questions (e.g., did you think of doing such and such a thing?  Do you think that such and such a thing might work better next time if you/the students do this, etc.)

Deadline: Tuesday, October 30, 2018, 5:59 p.m.

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Part 3

The aspect of the lesson that was not optimal was caused by a technological hiccup. Unfortunately, the computer did not work and the teacher was not able to use her powerpoint, missing her display of pictures and video to address her topics. Since the lesson was grammar-oriented, the goal was to introduce grammar implicitly through the use of images and videos. Not being able to use powerpoint, the grammar explanation became more explicit and the lesson had to be improvised. This was the only unanticipated consequence, but the teacher used realia available (such as a pen, pencil, etc.), and non-linguistic means (gestures) to provide what she could not show through her powerpoint. The teacher was able, through her laptop, to successfully show only one video to her students. The video hit the mark since students were mostly male and the video was about a scooter. Furthermore, female students also got engaged since this Italian scooter (la Vespa ) was designed to accommodate women wearing skirts.

The second phase of the lesson went well because students got hooked on the topic and they all participated in the activities. They worked in pairs and they answered all the questions. Although the class was full, all students paid attention, they did not get distracted, nor did they cause any distractions by talking to each other. This was a great success because the presentation phase engaged them for all the lesson period. I think the cultural part had a big impact because it was something they could relate to.

Students absorbed the importance of gender and number in Italian language and the importance of the seven Italian articles. Once one is able to distinguish between gender, number, and articles everything else becomes easy to understand since many parts of grammar constructions are built through them. Furthermore, students got the concept of far and near and the importance of being clear when describing objects close or far from them.  I believe that by working in pairs and in groups they learned how important it is to put together peer knowledge to accomplish the task. Students interacted well with each other and the with teacher. They participated, and this was important for the success of the lesson. The goals were achieved since they were able to answer correctly to all the parts of the activities proposed.

Students learned how to pay more attention to gender and number when they were writing, and how to describe objects and people by using adjectives. They learned how to piece together what they already knew to what they learned in class that day.

The lesson could have been taught differently by adding more pictures and different videos; by adding more tasks that had pictures incorporated, making connections with previous vocabulary words learned.

The lesson for the following part should start by reviewing all vocabulary from the previous lessons and adding some verbs ending in ere and ire, since, by only knowing verbs ending in are expressing preferences can be limited. (words 500)

Hi Maria.

Your ability to improvise without having the use of the projector to display the power-point slides to the students was commendable. You were able to keep you calm and controlled the class. You adjusted to using old-school teaching techniques, and thus minimize any impact without the use of current technology. That meant using the blackboard to draw the focus of the students while continuing to present your lesson plan. Another impressive technique was keeping constant eye contact with the students throughout the process. I thought your choice of using grammar along with vocabulary words which focused on the use of feminine and masculine stance was on point. This is critical to establishing a normal form of communication in the L2 target language (TL). The lesson plan you prepared met the objective of covering the three P’s, which are the presentation, practice, and production. You were able to flow into the practice activities which supported the foundation of your presentation. I found that you were able to keep the student engaged throughout the lesson. This display of your skillset was highlighted during the class activities, where you handed out the practice sheets to the students and then progressed to consistently involve them in class participation. Another key point was your movement in the classroom, reviewing the students' works to see if they required any assistance. This process reinforces your objective to maintain control and proper flow of the classroom

Overall your presentation was remarkable given the circumstance of not having access to project your power-point slide. Besides that, there was only one other area for possible improvement. I believe in pairing the students in groups or pair would have been more impactful to reinforce your lesson objective. Again, other than that I think you did a great job.(word count 303)

The teaching slice presented to the class on October 25, 2018 was one of my greatest achievements performed this year. The teaching slice was done at the College of Staten Island by St. George. The lesson plan consisted of teaching students how to describe their friends. Pictures, and videos showing physical and personal traits were used for this presentation. At the production part of the lesson, students had to present what they learned by describing each other. Overall, the aspects of the lesson that went well was hitting the target of binding. Binding is very important according to VanPatten (2003). Visual images were shown to the class in order to avoid translations, and to comfort differentiated students, because many students are visual learners. Students were also shown a video, and the video was shown twice for students to listen. Tomlinson (2001) believes it is imperative for students to be taught with plenty of repetition, and auditory task for the students understanding.
One can say the only aspect that didn't go as planned was failure to put the powerpoint in presentation mode. The lack of resources such as hand outs could have promoted explicit teaching which according to VanPatten (2003), is very important in order for students to brainstorm on their own. The pacing of my voice such as talking slow could've helped the students understand my directions better. The students took away many aspects of this lesson. Since the objectives were meant, students are now able to describe each other in the spanish language. Students learned about famous people from Latin America and Spain, which promoted culture in the lesson plan. There were no unanticipated consequences in the teaching slice. One can say it was a minor set back, when the question of, “how many of you guys have friends,” expressed in the target language. One student said “no,” but conquered that set back by saying, “my parents are my friends.”
The students interacted very well with each other, and I. The students were very interactive, active, and cooperative. Surprisingly, participation was very well performed during the lesson. The objectives of the lesson were meant. Students learned new material, such as being able to communicate in the target language. Describe their friends by using proper grammar. All of the students were able to use a variable of adjectives in spanish. Students learned about different cultures from Puerto Rico and Spain. Before the lesson, many students didn't know about them. The following lesson should begin with teaching students about different areas, and how to describe that area. In my opinion, the lesson plan performed was a great method of teaching the students. Although that is the case, one can say, reading a short story about friends, and how they describe each other could've helped promote reading and writing by answering questions. According to Cook (2008), reading is very important for students because this will promote grammar, and an expansion of taking in more words in the spanish language. Overall, after watching the video, the lesson went well. Everyone was very cooperative. A side note, after the lesson, students began to give feedback. I will make sure to use this feedback in the future. (532 Words)

The lesson was well presented. Since the beginning one presented culture by mentioning the Mexican program El Chavo del Ocho. It is evident that one tried to use Geesling and Long’s advice, by adding geographic variation., and it was excellently done. One also tried to do an implicit presentation of the vocabulary, where students were able to follow along with the activities. One could have also written down the adjectives for students to have a better understanding. Nevertheless, students were entertained, one could have also pointed to students to see how much they know and how much they do not know.

In your practice activity, you were able to communicate with your students. One was also able to encourage the students, and they seem to get more motivated to participate. This is an excellent way to assessed students. The video was an excellent idea to show the students. Perhaps before showing the video notify the students of what will be expected from them. One could have also written down the answers they shared, based on the video.

As mentioned before culture was well represented in the presentation, one could have continued using El Chavo del Ocho since it a program from Central America. Students could be able to make more connections with this. One could perhaps use all the characters from the show in order for students to learn about descriptive adjectives. Do you think that approaching the students more when they are working alone? Do you think that Bad Bunny is an appropriate person to represent culture? (258 words)

The central focus and purpose of the mini-lesson was to present vocabulary about personality traits, asking and answering questions about what people are alike, and writing adjectives in a personalized context. Also, students were able to compare clothing choices that reflect personality. The lesson plan was based on the Universal Learning Design, in which the materials and activities were differentiated to meet the students’ interest and learning needs.
The lesson went well in the following segments, during the presentation, and the process segments, students had the opportunity to engage in a communicative approach in which they participated in an open-ended discussion about pronouns and adjectives, in which the teacher reviewed some vocabulary from previous lesson. Also, students were exposed to visualize vocabulary with pictures as well as different Hispanic singers. According to Krashen and Terrell’s (1983), the Natural Approach consists of getting the students to choose between pictures according to the teacher’s description. This approach was encapsulated in Krashen’s slogan, “maximize comprehensible input” (Krashen, 1981b). Then students worked in pairs, in which they were engaged in a cooperative and communicative activity to put in practice their knowledge in personal traits. Then they worked on a worksheet to identify and write the adjectives that correspond to the pictures. During this activity, students used their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. According to Krashen, “the communicative method has emphasized the learner’s dual role as listener and as speakers. A typical exercise requires students to take both roles in a conversation and not only to understand the information they are listening to, but also to try to express it themselves.” (Krashen, 1981b).
The objective of this lesson was achieved because students had the opportunity to advance in their sociocultural competence and control over the use of the verb to be, “ser”, nouns and adjectives. Students had the opportunity to explain that many adjectives have different endings depending on whether they are describing a female or a male. During productivity segment, students wrote a mini dialogue of five sentences, in which they implemented vocabulary learned in previous lessons. Through this activity students were able to activate their background knowledge, in which they demonstrated their abilities in the new acquisition of the TL. According to Tomlinson,” it is important to address students’ own readiness levels, interests, and learning modes. By offering variations on well-designed products with core commonalities, teacher encourage all students to draw on their personal interest and strengths. In this way all students can grow from appropriate challenges. At the same time, the teacher retains focus on those curricular components he or she deems essential to all learners.” Tomlinson (1993).
If I were to re-teach some parts of the lesson, I would modify this lesson by implementing different mini videos of Hispanic linguistic variation. This would promote cultural awareness among the students. The following lesson will be focus in the use of the ER- IR verbs. (482 words)

Part 3: Self-reflection

         The lesson went well except at the beginning due to the brightness of the room that had to be dimmed  to have a better view of the board. After that, the lesson flowed. The objective of the class was to know some clothing items and their lexical variation using the simple present tense. The teacher explains the lesson by using many images of garments and accessories with their respective names in Spanish.

         Overall, the lesson went well because it caught the students' attention, especially of one of the students in the front row who was always willing to participate. She was interested and motivated because the class was communicative and visual. The use of many images addressed differentiation because some students are better learners when visualization is employed.  

         The interaction between the teacher and students is performed mainly during the presentation and production phases, through questions and answers aided by the visuals and teacher's non- linguistic language, that is to say, gestures.  All the communication between the students and the teacher is in Spanish except very minimal translation of some words. In one part of the lesson for example, the teacher even gives a metalinguistic feedback in Spanish to one student when she says: el chaqueta (the jacket) and he corrects her: es 'la chaqueta' porque es femenino (It's 'la chaqueta' because it is feminine). The interaction between students, however, is not completely in Spanish since they are learning the TL. They interact with each other in the practice stage of the lesson.

          It is pertinent to highlight that in the class there are two Heritage students who helped the class flow better. It is not noticed in the video but both students made their respective L2 classmates do the practice activity easier.

          The objective of the lesson was achieved because the students familiarized with the new vocabulary, reviewed their knowledge of the present tense verbs and the pronouns so far learned, and got to know the lexical variation of some garments and accessories in Spanish. Such achievement can be observed in the production activity where the students demonstrate what they have learned.

          Besides of the non-readable screen problem at the beginning of class, the distribution of time of the activities of the lesson did not go as programmed. According to the lesson plan, the practice activity time accounts for a 40% (20 minutes) of the lesson duration (50 minutes). In the teaching slice the practice just lasts 18% compared with the presentation part (45%) and production (32 %) of the total time of 22 minutes. The time frame of 22 minutes is too short to cover 3 activities. Unfortunately the practice part had to be cut off but in a normal time frame of 50 minutes, the most time is dedicated to practice.

          The next lesson should begin with a review of this one. In the following class the teacher could also see new verbs, and apply the lexical variation with more exercises and using the preterit tense of regular verbs this time.

          The class went well except for the two problems mentioned above. It is opportune to say that the teacher should have talked in a slower pace and raise his voice a little. Teaching is a learning process too and each time a teacher makes mistakes in a class they will serve him to be better in the following one.

(563 words)

Hi Oscar,

            One believes you did an amazing job teaching the college level college class. The students were very engaged and willing to participate. To start, the images presented helped students associate them with the correct vocabulary word. The fact you incorporated lexical variation also helped you obtain students interest and catch the learner eye. However, don’t you think giving students so many words can overwhelm students in such a little time? Perhaps, don’t you think next time you can focus on giving the lexical variation based on one specific country? To avoid confusion. Especially since you emphasize how important it is to learn lexical variation. Besides that, one can say your mini lesson was very communicative based and your students were very engaged. One liked the encouragement you gave your students when they answer the questions correctly. Your sense of humor made your second language learners feel comfortable. One also appreciated the fact you gave your students the words they need to complete the activity as a handout, since as you mention some student couldn’t read the PowerPoint.  Your gestures, and expressions also help student get a better understand of what was being asked, this is a good teaching technic to use when trying to avoid translation. The activities were also very diverse, which help student practice the language as they worked as a class and pairs. One would have liked to see your practice activity. However, I understand from personal experience it was very hard to incorporate all three P’s in such a short period of time. However, don’t you think it is important for us to learn how to manage time based on the time given? since we won’t always have the 45 to 50 minutes time period therefore, it is important for us to learn how to adjust our lesson in a timely order. Overall, you did a good job, keep up the good work Oscar. (320)

As a teacher, one must understand the importance of creating a universal learning design (ULD) and to make accommodations based on the different learning profiles of the students. One must also be aware that the lesson will not always go as one wishes. There must always be room for criticism and failure, but also to understand how one can improve in their future lessons.

The primary goal was to teach students the new vocabulary implicitly and not explicitly. Meaning one tried to use non-linguistics means such as gestures, the clothing one was wearing, and very few pictures. As Lee and VanPatten (2003) reveal when one uses “drawings, photos, diagrams, objects, gestures, and other visual aids to accompany their speech” (p.33) students can understand what one is trying to say. In this case, when teaching about clothing one used students’ items, since their clothing was based on their interests. One believes this part of the lesson went well. However, it could have gone better if some of the vocabularies were more accessible to them; meaning one could have written down the words for students as they were mentioned in order for them to have a better understanding.

The second activity went well compared to the presentation phase, as students were able to participate more. One also noticed that students were more engaged in the activity and were working in pairs. This was allowed, since one may allow, group work activities, provide time for students to share their ideas and thoughts based on the context that they are reviewing, make students work with a partner whom they trust (Tomlinson, 2001, p.63). One focused on creating motivation in the target language (TL), meaning the activity was created based on items they are interested in and their professor. Students collaborated well in this activity, especially when sharing answers as a group. Unfortunately, one lack one of the most important standards for foreign language learning (ACTFL), and that was culture. Students did gain knowledge based on the vocabulary and grammar that was presented; however, the activity did not contain any geographic variation. One way this could be changed is by adding people who well known in the TL and their communities that one is presenting.

The production activity went well; however, one noticed that instruction could have been explained more clearly. One wanted to create a formative assessment, as they “are designed to help form or shape learners’ ongoing” (Shrum & Glisan, 2016, p.41). Students were assessed when they share their work with the class. Nonetheless, one could have asked students to hand in their written work, in order to assets out students based on standers. Not only that but if students wished to review material they did not understand, this could have been their opportunity.

Students were able to understand the importance of clothing, the likes, and dislikes of the people that surround them, as well as the importance when asking question informally. Students were motivated to answer, as they were encouraged to participate in the classroom, even if they were wrong or did not understand well what was going on. 

The lesson can continue by sharing information about shopping practices in Hispanic countries, meaning how to negotiate and learn about the preterit tense of regular verbs. Some may believe that this is difficult. Nevertheless, one should challenge students an improve their communicative competence.

(560 Words)

Margarita, your teaching slice was very well performed. One can say that you really worked hard for this task. You hit the targets listening, writing, and reading. From what I saw from the video, you used images for the vocabulary part of the lesson. That is very good, especially since binding is very crucial for teaching. You didn't translate at all, maybe here in there, but all I could hear is you speaking Spanish. Your communication with the students really helped you interact with them. You could tell that the students were enjoying the lesson., They were able to express themselves, and talk about their outside aspects of life. “Sombrero,” was a word students used a lot, but one can say it's okay. Although you could've used a different term for a hat. Your culture in this lesson was good, when talking about a Venezuela market shop. I really like how you made sure all the students listened to you. For example, you made the students repeat what other students said. You were a little bit strict, but that is very good to make sure you have control of the class. This is very good, especially since it isn't your own classroom.
All though the teaching slice was very well performed, I am concerned that you didn't add plenty of culture into your lesson. For example, teaching about clothes is a great way of promoting culture from all around Latin America. A video could have been shown about a fashion show in Mexico, for example. Your pacing was okay, but I understand why your pacing was a little fast because it was a level 200 class. A couple of questions to consider: Do you feel like you added enough culture? Do you think your presentation was rushed? Did you make sure all of your students were interacting? Would a video make the class more interactive? Overall, Margarita you did a great job, and this is just a step closer to reaching your teaching dreams. (334 Words)

One believes the teaching lesson planned for SPN 112 students went fairly well. The purpose of the lesson was to teach students adjectives that would help them describe people, places and things. However, the lesson focused on helping second language (L2) learners discover new vocabulary words that will help them describe themselves, their classmates and friends.  When creating the lesson, one tried to make a communicative based approached lesson planned by providing activity were students would be able to expand their communication skills.

As stated, good material and lesson are more than just delivering explanation but giving the students a chance to practice the usage of the language (Geeslin and Long). Therefore, Students were presented with images of emojis representing the vocabulary words. One used the vocabulary words in a sentence, providing students with examples of what would be expected from them later on in the lesson. Students for the most part were able to understand the meaning of the vocabulary words by using the images of the emojis.  One tried to keep in mind students different learning styles. For this reason, pictures were added to the lesson and a mix of listening, speaking and writing activities. Students also had the chance to work in pairs or individually. Student were also able to learn about famous Hispanic individuals that play a huge role in today’s society.

On the other hand, since there was a lack of time and a lot of vocabulary words to present, one believes students might have felt overwhelmed with the overload of words being presented in such a short period of time. This could have caused the confusion many students experienced within the lesson. One can improved by providing a reasonable amount of vocabulary based on time given. One must also improve on finding different technics to use when trying to avoid translations. Although one tried to avoid translations, one noticed many students were confused during the lesson, which lead one to relay on using English to try to make L2 learners understand what was being taught.

By the end of this lesson, L2 learners were able to expand their vocabulary with new adjectives that would help them describe others. L2 learners were also able to further their understanding and practice the usage of the verb SER in the present tense. One personally went around making sure students whom needed the additional help received it. When asking students to share their answers many seem shy and afraid of having the wrong answers. However, a good hand of students participated with no problem, others were randomly called on.

The next lesson would start by going over the vocabulary that was previously presented to them. Eventually, introducing places and different nationalities. Student will be able to use these vocabulary words to further describe their friends or any individual. As a future educator, one is aware there are many areas where improvement is needed.  One can be to incorporate more culture into the lesson. As well as, be more creative when planning a lesson. One can use this self-reflection to improve and work on becoming whom one wants to be as future educator. (524).

Hi Briana,

             It is worth to highlight the use of the emoji figures which are nice and easy visual tools and self explanatory. In the first practice part you walk around the classroom assisting the students who work individually. The student with the cell phone in the front row, is the first one to answer the question in the first production part when the class starts to flow and the students are willing to answer the questions about the Hispanic celebrities, especially Cardi B. This part constitutes the cultural approach of your lesson.  In the next activity you walk around the room again assisting the students which is great because you interact with the students.

            What it needs work is the structure of the 3 P's. Don't you think the three phases are repeated one after another? You used practice and production twice. I think that the three parts need to be put in sequence and balanced. Don't you think the presentation segment could have been a little longer? In the presentation part, you could have included some figures, cartoon or clip art, showing comparisons, for example, a tall boy vs. a short boy, and old woman vs. a young woman, a strong man vs. a weak man, etc., so the students can easily differentiate the adjectives so that you could have avoided translation.

            It could have been better to hand out exercise papers to the students in the two practice activities and put them to work in pairs. Don't you think that way could have been more interactive and communicative?

            Finally, the appearance of the official teacher, I believe, in the video, is distracting and intimidating.

            Sorry if I sound so critical but I do it with the best intention, with the only intention to look for improvement for all of us who are pursuing this exciting career of teaching. I want also to commend your positive attitude Briana because you always smile and are an agreeable person. Well done!


             (329 words)

Part 3

The lesson plan I presented on Thursday, October 25th   was a confidence builder.  The teaching slides focus on expanding the student’s lexicons in relation to personality and character attributes. The assigned lesson focused on Level 1 students, in this case, college level who showed ACTFL novice proficiency in the target language (TL). Using visual aids and a storyboard of several characters, I was able to incorporate new lexicons that were interwoven throughout the slides. Further, the practice exercises reinforce and expand the L2 students understanding by expanding the following cognitive skills of listening, reading and writing. However, there were areas where I believe I was able to excel and others that require improvement. 

In the classroom during our practice activities many students while working in their pairs where able to discuss the activity in a casual and productive manner. Also, during these practices specifically, the last activity some students asked for some assistance with the activity. However, I was only able to assist the student who explicitly asked me for assistance during the activity. My correction for the next lesson plan would be to go to each pair of students in the classroom directly and see their progress with the activity. This is to ensure that all students maintain a firm enough grasp of the material discussed prior in the lesson. The visual aids were sufficient, which I believe the students were able to follow, and comprehend the material.  I believe I was able to stay on point on my objective which was to improve the student’s communicative and comprehensive learning skills. This was important in establishing the importance of input and interaction in the development of second language abilities. Therefore, suggest the lesson was student-centered, which include interaction with the students by means of participation. The students read and responded by giving their answers.  Secondly, attention was made to individuals students, not all students responded in the same way pedogeological material and activity. The lesson was based on having the students relate to the character, gaining a sense of familiarity, which intern provided common vocabulary words that they could utilize in an everyday setting.

There were several areas of improvement. After reviewing the video there was as a missed opportunity to initially set up my presentation prior to starting the lesson plan to avoid any mishaps or miscues that interfered in the presentation process. Also, I could use an iPad or an electronic medium in my presentation with notes to assist and keep me on track in presenting the challenging words to the students.  Other areas would be to improve participation by selecting students to come up to the board and read the assigned material. For the next lesson, I would also like to add more variations to the practice activities, to increase overall student engagement. Finally, I could have included more materials that speak to culture.

With more practice and experience I will be able to refine and improve areas where I may be currently deficient in. In future lesson plans I would want to teach a topic incorporating family specifically, words describing the family dynamic as well as vocabulary to describe familiar roles. In future lesson plans I plan to integrate the improvements previously listed in order to increase the effectiveness of future lessons. I plan to work with supplementary notes as well as higher quality activities to improve class productivity. In addition, I plan to use this increase in productivity to gage the students understanding of material covered in future lessons. Furthermore, finding a way to integrate into the classroom sociolinguistics variation in learning a second language can be challenging. This is an area that I will continue to strive and improve. (word count 618) 



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