Think-Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981): An Equity Pedagogical Best Practice to Increase and Vary Student Participation in the Classroom
This is a three-step paired cooperative procedure created by *Dr. Frank Lyman in 1981. During step one, each member individually and silently thinks about a question posed by the teacher. During the second step, two members are paired to exchange and discuss their responses. During step three, each member may share his response, his partner's response, a synthesis or something new with the quad (a cooperative team of four), another quad, or the entire class. Participants always retain the right to pass or not share information. There are many variations including: Think-Write-Pair and Share and Think-Web, Pair-Web and Share. Sample Application: Instead of posing a question to the class, the teacher uses Think-Pair-Share. Example: Think of your favorite Jewish holiday; Pair (discuss) with your partner; Share your answer with the class.
Think-Pair-Share is an equity pedagogical best practice because it provides students with (a) ‘think time”, a period to reflect and compose their answer, (b) ‘behavioral rehearsal time', a period to practice stating their thoughts with a classmate, and (c) five safe options including sharing the thoughts of a learning partner. The research on Think-Pair-Share is compelling in that it encourages increased student participation, and higher levels of student thinking and questioning.
* Lyman, F. (1981). The Responsive Classroom Discussion: The Inclusion of All Students.Mainstreaming Digest. University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
NOW HERE IS A QUESTION FOR YOU: WHAT EQUITY PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES DO YOU USE IN YOUR CLASSROOM?
On the next post we will discuss another equity pedagogical best practice: You’re the Teacher. See